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newfs.c

/*
 * Copyright (c) 1999 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved.
 *
 * @APPLE_LICENSE_HEADER_START@
 * 
 * "Portions Copyright (c) 1999 Apple Computer, Inc.  All Rights
 * Reserved.  This file contains Original Code and/or Modifications of
 * Original Code as defined in and that are subject to the Apple Public
 * Source License Version 1.0 (the 'License').  You may not use this file
 * except in compliance with the License.  Please obtain a copy of the
 * License at http://www.apple.com/publicsource and read it before using
 * this file.
 * 
 * The Original Code and all software distributed under the License are
 * distributed on an 'AS IS' basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
 * EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND APPLE HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL SUCH WARRANTIES,
 * INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT.  Please see the
 * License for the specific language governing rights and limitations
 * under the License."
 * 
 * @APPLE_LICENSE_HEADER_END@
 */
/*
 * Copyright (c) 1983, 1989, 1993, 1994
 *    The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
 *    must display the following acknowledgement:
 *    This product includes software developed by the University of
 *    California, Berkeley and its contributors.
 * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
 *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
 *    without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
 * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
 * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
 * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
 * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
 * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
 * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
 * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
 * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
 * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
 * SUCH DAMAGE.
 */

#ifdef linux
#define __APPLE__
#endif

/*
 * newfs: friendly front end to mkfs
 */
#include "dkopen.h"
#include <sys/param.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <mach/boolean.h>
#include <sys/vm.h>

#ifdef linux
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sys/statfs.h>
#include "ufslabel.h"

#if defined (linux) && defined (__powerpc__)
#define __ppc__
#endif

#include <sys/disklabel.h>

#define MAXPHYS (64 * 1024)
#define MAXPHYSIO MAXPHYS

#else
#include <sys/disklabel.h>
#include <sys/file.h>
#include <sys/mount.h>
#include <ufs/ufs/ufsmount.h>
#endif

#include <ufs/ufs/dir.h>
#include <ufs/ufs/dinode.h>
#include <ufs/ffs/fs.h>

#include <ctype.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <paths.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <syslog.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <err.h>

#ifdef __APPLE__
int dkdisklabel __P((int fd, struct disklabel * lp));
int dkdisklabelregenerate __P((int fd, struct disklabel * lp, int newblksize));
#endif /* __APPLE__ */

#if __STDC__
#include <stdarg.h>
#else
#include <varargs.h>
#endif

#include "mntopts.h"

struct mntopt mopts[] = {
      MOPT_STDOPTS,
      MOPT_ASYNC,
      { NULL },
};

#ifdef __APPLE__
#include "ufslabel.h"
#endif __APPLE__

#if __STDC__
void  fatal(const char *fmt, ...);
#else
void  fatal();
#endif

#define     COMPAT                  /* allow non-labeled disks */

/*
 * The following two constants set the default block and fragment sizes.
 * Both constants must be a power of 2 and meet the following constraints:
 *    MINBSIZE <= DESBLKSIZE <= MAXBSIZE
 *    sectorsize <= DESFRAGSIZE <= DESBLKSIZE
 *    DESBLKSIZE / DESFRAGSIZE <= 8
 */
#define     DESFRAGSIZE 1024
#define     DESBLKSIZE  8192

/*
 * Cylinder groups may have up to many cylinders. The actual
 * number used depends upon how much information can be stored
 * on a single cylinder. The default is to use 16 cylinders
 * per group.
 */
#define     DESCPG            16    /* desired fs_cpg */

/*
 * ROTDELAY gives the minimum number of milliseconds to initiate
 * another disk transfer on the same cylinder. It is used in
 * determining the rotationally optimal layout for disk blocks
 * within a file; the default of fs_rotdelay is 4ms.
 */
#ifdef __APPLE__
#define ROTDELAY  0
#else
#define ROTDELAY  4
#endif

/*
 * MAXBLKPG determines the maximum number of data blocks which are
 * placed in a single cylinder group. The default is one indirect
 * block worth of data blocks.
 */
#define MAXBLKPG(bsize) ((bsize) / sizeof(daddr_t))

/*
 * Each file system has a number of inodes statically allocated.
 * We allocate one inode slot per NFPI fragments, expecting this
 * to be far more than we will ever need.
 */
#define     NFPI        4

/*
 * For each cylinder we keep track of the availability of blocks at different
 * rotational positions, so that we can lay out the data to be picked
 * up with minimum rotational latency.  NRPOS is the default number of
 * rotational positions that we distinguish.  With NRPOS of 8 the resolution
 * of our summary information is 2ms for a typical 3600 rpm drive.
 */
#define     NRPOS       8     /* number distinct rotational positions */

int   Nflag;                  /* run without writing file system */
int   Oflag;                  /* format as an 4.3BSD file system */
int   fssize;                 /* file system size */
int   ntracks;          /* # tracks/cylinder */
int   nsectors;         /* # sectors/track */
int   nphyssectors;           /* # sectors/track including spares */
int   secpercyl;        /* sectors per cylinder */
int   trackspares = -1; /* spare sectors per track */
int   cylspares = -1;         /* spare sectors per cylinder */
int   sectorsize;       /* bytes/sector */
int   rpm;              /* revolutions/minute of drive */
int   interleave;       /* hardware sector interleave */
int   trackskew = -1;         /* sector 0 skew, per track */
int   headswitch;       /* head switch time, usec */
int   trackseek;        /* track-to-track seek, usec */
int   fsize = 0;        /* fragment size */
int   bsize = 0;        /* block size */
#ifdef __APPLE__
int   cpg = 0;          /* cylinders/cylinder group */
#else
int   cpg = DESCPG;           /* cylinders/cylinder group */
#endif
int   cpgflg;                 /* cylinders/cylinder group flag was given */
int   minfree = MINFREE;      /* free space threshold */
int   opt = DEFAULTOPT; /* optimization preference (space or time) */
int   density;          /* number of bytes per inode */
int   maxcontig = 0;          /* max contiguous blocks to allocate */
int   rotdelay = ROTDELAY;    /* rotational delay between blocks */
int   maxbpg;                 /* maximum blocks per file in a cyl group */
int   nrpos = NRPOS;          /* # of distinguished rotational positions */
int   avgfilesize = AVFILESIZ;/* expected average file size */
int   avgfilesperdir = AFPDIR;/* expected number of files per directory */
int   bbsize = BBSIZE;  /* boot block size */
int   sbsize = SBSIZE;  /* superblock size */
int   mntflags = MNT_ASYNC;   /* flags to be passed to mount */
u_long      memleft;          /* virtual memory available */
caddr_t     membase;          /* start address of memory based filesystem */
#ifdef COMPAT
char  *disktype;
int   unlabeled;
#endif

char  device[MAXPATHLEN];
char  *progname;

extern void mkfs(char *, int, int);
void usage();

int
main(argc, argv)
      int argc;
      char *argv[];
{
      extern char *optarg;
      extern int optind;
      register int ch;
      register struct partition *pp;
      register struct disklabel *lp;
      struct disklabel *getdisklabel();
      struct partition oldpartition;
      struct stat st;
      struct statfs *mp;
      int fsi, fso, len, n;
      char *cp, *s1, *s2, *special, *opstring;
#ifdef __APPLE__
      char *      filesystem_name = "untitled"; /* filesystem name */
#endif __APPLE__

      if (progname = strrchr(*argv, '/'))
            ++progname;
      else
            progname = *argv;

      opstring = "NOS:T:a:b:c:d:e:f:g:h:i:k:l:m:n:o:p:r:s:t:u:v:x:";
      while ((ch = getopt(argc, argv, opstring)) != EOF)
            switch (ch) {
            case 'N':
                  Nflag = 1;
                  break;
            case 'O':
                  Oflag = 1;
                  break;
            case 'S':
                  if ((sectorsize = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad sector size", optarg);
                  break;
#ifdef COMPAT
            case 'T':
                  disktype = optarg;
                  break;
#endif
            case 'a':
                  if ((maxcontig = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad maximum contiguous blocks\n",
                            optarg);
                  break;
            case 'b':
                  if ((bsize = atoi(optarg)) < MINBSIZE)
                        fatal("%s: bad block size", optarg);
                  break;
            case 'c':
                  if ((cpg = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad cylinders/group", optarg);
                  cpgflg++;
                  break;
            case 'd':
                  if ((rotdelay = atoi(optarg)) < 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad rotational delay\n", optarg);
                  break;
            case 'e':
                  if ((maxbpg = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
            fatal("%s: bad blocks per file in a cylinder group\n",
                            optarg);
                  break;
            case 'f':
                  if ((fsize = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad fragment size", optarg);
                  break;
            case 'g':
                  if ((avgfilesize = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad average file size", optarg);
                  break;
            case 'h':
                  if ((avgfilesperdir = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad average files per dir", optarg);
                  break;
            case 'i':
                  if ((density = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad bytes per inode\n", optarg);
                  break;
            case 'k':
                  if ((trackskew = atoi(optarg)) < 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad track skew", optarg);
                  break;
            case 'l':
                  if ((interleave = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad interleave", optarg);
                  break;
            case 'm':
                  if ((minfree = atoi(optarg)) < 0 || minfree > 99)
                        fatal("%s: bad free space %%\n", optarg);
                  break;
            case 'n':
                  if ((nrpos = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad rotational layout count\n",
                            optarg);
                  break;
            case 'o':
                  if (strcmp(optarg, "space") == 0)
                        opt = FS_OPTSPACE;
                  else if (strcmp(optarg, "time") == 0)
                        opt = FS_OPTTIME;
                  else
      fatal("%s: unknown optimization preference: use `space' or `time'.");
                  break;
            case 'p':
                  if ((trackspares = atoi(optarg)) < 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad spare sectors per track",
                            optarg);
                  break;
            case 'r':
                  if ((rpm = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad revolutions/minute\n", optarg);
                  break;
            case 's':
                  if ((fssize = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad file system size", optarg);
                  break;
            case 't':
                  if ((ntracks = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad total tracks", optarg);
                  break;
            case 'u':
                  if ((nsectors = atoi(optarg)) <= 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad sectors/track", optarg);
                  break;
#ifdef __APPLE__
            case 'v':
                  filesystem_name = optarg;
                  break;
#endif __APPLE__
            case 'x':
                  if ((cylspares = atoi(optarg)) < 0)
                        fatal("%s: bad spare sectors per cylinder",
                            optarg);
                  break;
            case '?':
            default:
                  usage();
            }
      argc -= optind;
      argv += optind;

      if (argc != 2 && (argc != 1))
            usage();

      special = argv[0];
      cp = strrchr(special, '/');
#if defined (__APPLE__) && !defined (linux)
//    printf("Checking for spl device\n");
      if (cp != 0)
            special = cp + 1;
      if (*special == 'r' && special[1] != 'a' && special[1] != 'b')
            special++;
      sprintf(device, "/dev/r%s", special);
//    printf("Special device is %s\n",device);
#else
#if defined (linux)
      if (cp != 0)
            if (stat(special, &st) == -1)
                  fatal("%s: %s", special, strerror(errno));
            else
                  sprintf(device, "%s", special);
#endif
      if (cp == 0) {
            /*
             * No path prefix; try /dev/r%s then /dev/%s.
             */
            (void)sprintf(device, "%sr%s", _PATH_DEV, special);
            if (stat(device, &st) == -1)
                  (void)sprintf(device, "%s%s", _PATH_DEV, special);
            special = device;
      }
#endif /* __APPLE__ */
      if (Nflag) {
            fso = -1;
      } else {
//          printf("opening device %s\n",device);
            fso = dkopen(device, O_WRONLY, 0);
            if (fso < 0)
                  fatal("%s: %s", special, strerror(errno));

#ifndef linux
//          printf("getting mount info \n");
            /* Bail if target special is mounted */
            n = getmntinfo(&mp, MNT_NOWAIT);
            if (n == 0)
                  fatal("%s: getmntinfo: %s", special, strerror(errno));

//          printf("obtained mntinfo\n");
            len = sizeof(_PATH_DEV) - 1;
            s1 = special;
            if (strncmp(_PATH_DEV, s1, len) == 0)
                  s1 += len;

            while (--n >= 0) {
                  s2 = mp->f_mntfromname;
                  if (strncmp(_PATH_DEV, s2, len) == 0) {
                        s2 += len - 1;
                        *s2 = 'r';
                  }
                  if (strcmp(s1, s2) == 0 || strcmp(s1, &s2[1]) == 0)
                        fatal("%s is mounted on %s",
                            special, mp->f_mntonname);
                  ++mp;
            }
#endif
            { /* clear out the start of the filesystem */
                void *  buf;
#define WIPE_START            ((ssize_t)128 * 1024)

                if (lseek(fso, 0, SEEK_SET) < 0) {
                  fatal("lseek failed on %s, %s", 
                        special, strerror(errno));
                }
                buf = malloc(WIPE_START);
                if (buf == NULL) {
                  fatal("malloc(WIPE_START) failed");
                }
                bzero(buf, WIPE_START);
                if (write(fso, buf, WIPE_START) != WIPE_START) {
                  fatal("write(WIPE_START) %s failed, %s",
                        special, strerror(errno));
                }
                free(buf);
            }
      }
//    printf("opening rdonly device is %s\n", special);
      fsi = dkopen(device, O_RDONLY, 0);
//    printf("open rdonly returned with fsi %x\n",fsi);
      if (fsi < 0) 
            fatal("%s: %s", special, strerror(errno));
//    printf("Calling fstat\n");
      if (fstat(fsi, &st) < 0)
            fatal("%s: %s", special, strerror(errno));
//    printf("Fstat returned OK\n");
      if ((st.st_mode & S_IFMT) != S_IFCHR)
            printf("%s: %s: not a character-special device\n",
                progname, special);
#ifdef COMPAT
      if (disktype == NULL)
            disktype = argv[1];
#endif
//    printf("Getting disklabel\n");
      lp = getdisklabel(special, fsi);
#ifdef __APPLE__
      if (sectorsize) {
            if (dkdisklabelregenerate(fsi, lp, sectorsize) < 0)
                  fatal("%s: invalid sector size", special);
      }
#endif /* __APPLE__ */
      pp = &lp->d_partitions[0];
      if (pp->p_size == 0)
            fatal("%s: partition is unavailable",
                argv[0]);
      if (pp->p_fstype == FS_BOOT)
            fatal("%s: partition overlaps boot program",
                  argv[0]);
      if (fssize == 0)
            fssize = pp->p_size;
      if (fssize > pp->p_size)
             fatal("%s: maximum file system size on the partition is %d",
                  argv[0], pp->p_size);
      if (rpm == 0) {
            rpm = lp->d_rpm;
            if (rpm <= 0)
                  rpm = 3600;
      }
      if (ntracks == 0) {
            ntracks = lp->d_ntracks;
            if (ntracks <= 0)
                  fatal("%s: no default #tracks", argv[0]);
      }
      if (nsectors == 0) {
            nsectors = lp->d_nsectors;
//          printf("Nsectors is %x\n",nsectors);
            if (nsectors <= 0)
                  fatal("%s: no default #sectors/track", argv[0]);
      }
      if (sectorsize == 0) {
            sectorsize = lp->d_secsize;
            if (sectorsize <= 0)
                  fatal("%s: no default sector size", argv[0]);
      }
      if (trackskew == -1) {
            trackskew = lp->d_trackskew;
            if (trackskew < 0)
                  trackskew = 0;
      }
      if (interleave == 0) {
            interleave = lp->d_interleave;
            if (interleave <= 0)
                  interleave = 1;
      }
      if (fsize == 0) {
            fsize = pp->p_fsize;
            if (fsize <= 0)
                  fsize = MAX(DESFRAGSIZE, lp->d_secsize);
      }
      if (bsize == 0) {
            bsize = pp->p_frag * pp->p_fsize;
            if (bsize <= 0)
                  bsize = MIN(DESBLKSIZE, 8 * fsize);
      }
#ifdef __APPLE__
      if (cpg == 0) {
            cpg = pp->p_cpg;
            if (cpg <= 0)
                  cpg = DESCPG;
      }
#endif /* __APPLE__ */
      /*
       * Maxcontig sets the default for the maximum number of blocks
       * that may be allocated sequentially. With filesystem clustering
       * it is possible to allocate contiguous blocks up to the maximum
       * transfer size permitted by the controller or buffering.
       */
      if (maxcontig == 0)
            maxcontig = MAX(1, MAXPHYS / bsize);
      if (density == 0)
            density = NFPI * fsize;
      if (minfree < MINFREE && opt != FS_OPTSPACE) {
            fprintf(stderr, "Warning: changing optimization to space ");
            fprintf(stderr, "because minfree is less than %d%%\n", MINFREE);
            opt = FS_OPTSPACE;
      }
      if (trackspares == -1) {
            trackspares = lp->d_sparespertrack;
            if (trackspares < 0)
                  trackspares = 0;
      }
      nphyssectors = nsectors + trackspares;
//    printf("nphyssectors is %x\n", nphyssectors);
      if (cylspares == -1) {
            cylspares = lp->d_sparespercyl;
            if (cylspares < 0)
                  cylspares = 0;
      }
      secpercyl = nsectors * ntracks - cylspares;
      if (secpercyl != lp->d_secpercyl)
            fprintf(stderr, "%s (%d) %s (%lu)\n",
                  "Warning: calculated sectors per cylinder", secpercyl,
                  "disagrees with disk label", lp->d_secpercyl);
      if (maxbpg == 0)
            maxbpg = MAXBLKPG(bsize);
      headswitch = lp->d_headswitch;
      trackseek = lp->d_trkseek;
      bbsize = lp->d_bbsize;
      sbsize = lp->d_sbsize;
      oldpartition = *pp;
//    printf("Calling mkfs\n");
      mkfs(special, fsi, fso);
//    printf("MKFS done\n");

      if (!Nflag) {
            close(fso);
#ifdef __APPLE__
            fso = dkopen(device, O_RDWR, 0);
            if (fso < 0) {
                fatal("%s: couldn't label the filesystem on %s",
                    argv[0], special);
            } else {
                  struct ufslabel ul;
                  ufslabel_init(&ul);
                  ufslabel_set_uuid(&ul);
                  if (ufslabel_set_name(&ul, filesystem_name, 
                               strlen(filesystem_name)) == FALSE) {
                      fatal("%s: couldn't name the filesystem on %s",
                          argv[0], special);
                  }
                  if (ufslabel_set(fso, &ul) == FALSE) {
                      fatal("%s: couldn't label the filesystem on %s",
                          argv[0], special);
                  }
                  close(fso);
            }
#endif __APPLE__
      }
      close(fsi);
      
      exit(0);
}

#ifdef COMPAT
char lmsg[] = "%s: can't read disk label; disk type must be specified";
#else
char lmsg[] = "%s: can't read disk label";
#endif

struct disklabel *
getdisklabel(s, fd)
      char *s;
      int fd;
{
      static struct disklabel lab;

#ifdef __APPLE__
      if (dkdisklabel(fd, &lab) < 0)
#else
      if (ioctl(fd, DIOCGDINFO, (char *)&lab) < 0)
#endif
      {
            warn("ioctl (GDINFO)");
            fatal(lmsg, s);
      }
      return (&lab);
}

#ifndef __APPLE__
rewritelabel(s, fd, lp)
      char *s;
      int fd;
      register struct disklabel *lp;
{
#ifdef COMPAT
      if (unlabeled)
            return;
#endif
      lp->dl_checksum = 0;
      lp->dl_checksum = dkcksum(lp);
      if (ioctl(fd, DIOCWDINFO, (char *)lp) < 0) 
      {
            warn("ioctl (WDINFO)");
            fatal("%s: can't rewrite disk label", s);
      }
}
#endif

/*VARARGS*/
void
#if __STDC__
fatal(const char *fmt, ...)
#else
fatal(fmt, va_alist)
      char *fmt;
      va_dcl
#endif
{
      va_list ap;

#if __STDC__
      va_start(ap, fmt);
#else
      va_start(ap);
#endif
      if (fcntl(STDERR_FILENO, F_GETFL) < 0) {
            openlog(progname, LOG_CONS, LOG_DAEMON);
            vsyslog(LOG_ERR, fmt, ap);
            closelog();
      } else {
            vwarnx(fmt, ap);
      }
      va_end(ap);
      exit(1);
      /*NOTREACHED*/
}

void
usage()
{
            fprintf(stderr,
                "usage: %s [ -fsoptions ] special-device%s\n",
                progname,
#ifdef COMPAT
                " [device-type]");
#else
                "");
#endif
      fprintf(stderr, "where fsoptions are:\n");
      fprintf(stderr,
          "\t-N do not create file system, just print out parameters\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-O create a 4.3BSD format filesystem\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-S sector size\n");
#ifdef COMPAT
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-T disktype\n");
#endif
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-a maximum contiguous blocks\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-b block size\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-c cylinders/group\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-d rotational delay between contiguous blocks\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-e maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-f frag size\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-g average file size\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-h average files per directory\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-i number of bytes per inode\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-k sector 0 skew, per track\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-l hardware sector interleave\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-m minimum free space %%\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-n number of distinguished rotational positions\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-o optimization preference (`space' or `time')\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-p spare sectors per track\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-s file system size (sectors)\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-r revolutions/minute\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-t tracks/cylinder\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-u sectors/track\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-v filesystem/volume name\n");
      fprintf(stderr, "\t-x spare sectors per cylinder\n");
      exit(1);
}

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